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However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood and established therapeutic strategies are still missing. HOW : Di-Mi-Liv combines the complementary expertise of 5 groups with a strong background in various aspects of diet, liver disease, bile acids and intestinal microbiota. Through combining this expertise and combining clinical interventions with mouse models, the project aims to determine whether the interaction of bile acids and intestinal microbiota is critical for the initiating and progressing stages of NAFLD.

Furthermore, it will be addressed whether this liver disease can be targeted through diet and more specifically with prebiotics, thereby improving disease progression and overall health. Diet x gut microbiome-based metabotypes to determine cardiometabolic risk and tailor intervention strategies for improved health WHAT : The human gut microbiota has been linked with incidence and progression of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors.

Moreover, diet has been identified as an important modulator of microbiota composition and function, but responses vary between individuals. The underlying mechanisms of diet - microbiota interactions remain to be elucidated to provide a foundation for tailored dietary strategies for personalized precision nutrition.

The aim of the DiGuMet project is to investigate how gut microbiota interact with diet and to identify the role of these interactions on cardiometabolic risk factors. HOW : In this project the underlying mechanisms will be further dissected through extensive metabotyping using metagenomics and metabolomics combined with lifestyle data in a free-living prospective cohort subset.

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The hypothesis is that gut microbiota - diet interactions are a major determinant of the metabotypes and that distinct metabotypes could be reflected by predictive biomarkers. These biomarkers could then be used to tailor personalised dietary interventions to improve the molecular phenotypes among subjects at elevated risk of cardio vascular diseases. The hypothesis will be tested by conducting a dietary intervention rich in fermentable vs non-fermentable cereal fibres among subjects with signs of metabolic syndrome with distinct differences in their pattern of microbiota and microbiota-derived metabolites.

The role of diet-dependent human microbiome encoded T3SS-dependent effectors in modulating health WHAT : Proteobacteria respond strongly to dietary changes and have been proposed as a diagnostic marker of dysbiosis microbial imbalance. DIME will investigate how diet-responsive commensal gut microbes modulate human health by injecting microbial proteins into human cells to affect regulation and metabolism.

HOW : DIME aims to analyze the protein-protein interaction network of effector proteins from commensal microbes with the human host interactome to understand which processes and disease modules are targeted by this underexplored molecular mechanism. First, effectors and secretion systems in microbial reference genomes and meta-genome datasets will be identified, especially those that change in response to certain diets.

Fibre and wholegrain cereals

The resulting host-microbe interactome map will be analyzed to identify targets, processes, and disease modules that are perturbed by microbial effectors; for selected examples the molecular mechanism will be elucidated. It is expected that the mechanisms and the systems-level effector-host network will enable dietary or pharmaceutical interventions based on specific interference or secretion-blocking strategies. Long-term impact of gestational and early-life dietary habits on infant gut immunity and disease risk WHAT : Man is colonized immediately upon birth by environmental microbes of primarily maternal origin.

Initial colonization and transfer of maternal immunity through breastfeeding are believed to impact infant health at short- and long-term by conferring protection from infection and potentially resistance to metabolic and allergic diseases. The project proposes to assess the importance of dietary habits on maternal immunity sIgA in gut microbiota and breast milk and on neonatal colonization and installation of immunological tolerance by a novel high-throughput immune-metagenomic approach. HOW : EarlyFOOD will integrate immuno-metagenomics, metabolomics and toxicological as well as epidemiological data, such as exposure to dietary-derived metabolites and pollutants as well as infectious events, antibiotics, allergens and air pollutants in a birth cohort of individuals living across Europe in environments of different biodiversity.

Sugar: should we eliminate it from our diet?

The impact of gestational and early-life dietary habits on dysbiotic states of microbiota will be identified by biostatistical modelization of the risk of developing metabolic and allergic disease as well as neurobehavioral disorders. The program will identify predictive biomarkers and early-life preventive strategies for the growing epidemic of human metabolic and allergic diseases. Such advances may have important impact on public health and generate socio-economic benefits. This was associated with hepatic insulin signaling perturbations, a transcriptomic profile indicative of NAFLD and triglyceride accumulation.

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On other cohorts transcriptomic analyses from intestinal biopsies and 16S sequencing of liver samples suggested: 1. The interaction between dietary lipids and the gut microbiota in the etiology of NAFLD is unknown and could impair intestinal defense and lipid handling. HOW : Using original and complementary models of genetically modified mice and germ-free mice colonized with human microbiota, FATMAL will study the impact of different lipid-enriched diets on: 1. Maternal obesity and cognitive dysfunction in the offspring: cause-effect role of the GUT MicrobiOMe and early dietary prevention WHAT : Early life is fundamental for brain and microbiota development, as gut microbiota influences brain function.

Maternal obesity affects maturation of gut microbiota and is an important predictor of cognitive dysfunction in the offspring. Cognitive decline through life is an increasingly invalidating condition, due to population ageing and the high frequency of predisposing factors obesity, unhealthy diets. GUTMOM hypothesizes that the negative effects of maternal obesity on cognitive function in the offspring are partly mediated by the microbiota and its metabolites, offering the opportunity for non-invasive risk-screening and -reduction by tailored foods and diets, since earliest life stages.

Faecal Microbiome as determinant of the effect of diet on colorectal cancer risk: comparison of meat based versus pesco-vegetarian diets WHAT : Colorectal cancer CRC is strongly affected by diet, with red and processed meat increasing the risk. To study colon carcinogenesis, the same diets will be fed 3 months to carcinogen-induced rats or to Pirc rats, mutated in Apc, the key gene in CRC.

Faecal microbiome profiles will be correlated to carcinogenesis measuring preneoplastic lesions, colon tumors, and faecal and blood CRC biomarkers as in humans. Third, to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effect of different microbiomes in determining CRC risk, faeces from rats fed the experimental diets will be transplanted into carcinogen-induced germ-free rats, measuring how microbiome changes correlate with metabolome and disease outcomes.

A randomized, controlled, mechanistic clinical trial WHAT : Coronary atherosclerosis is a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Continuous efforts are needed to improve secondary prevention and understand the mechanism underlying disease progression. Based on primary prevention trials, a potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet after an acute coronary syndrome can be anticipated.

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Intestinal and oral dysbiosis is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and microbiome dynamics may account for some of the observed benefits of Mediterranean diet. HOW : The first objective of MEDIMACS is to evaluate the effects of a well-controlled Mediterranean diet intervention on atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and coronary endothelial dysfunction after an episode of acute coronary syndrome.

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The second objective is to decipher the interplays among diet, microbiota, immunity and metabolism responsible for the observed effects. Therefore, a randomized mechanistic clinical trial, using state-of-the-art efficacy read-outs is proposed. This study will provide valuable insights to identify potential microbiome therapeutic targets for coronary artery disease. A recent research review paper by Pavan Bhargava, MD, provides information and current evidence for each of the most popular diets.

Some special diets may be harmful because they include potentially toxic amounts of certain vitamins, or exclude important nutrients.

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That's why it's important to consult with your healthcare professional before starting any diet that includes nutritional supplements or vitamins. It is well known that vitamin D works to promote calcium absorption for strong bones. However, recent research also suggests that vitamin D may have important effects on the immune system and may help regulate cell growth and differentiation.

A clinical trial is underway to determine what role vitamin D supplementation might play in reducing MS disease activity. The National MS Society also provides guidelines for healthcare professionals on managing vitamin D issues in clinical practice. Biotin is considered a form of vitamin B, and is a component of enzymes in the body that help break down certain substances in the body.

Biotin, also known as vitamin H, is usually obtained from food. In spring of , an abstract was published of preliminary results from a clinical trial in France involving people with primary-progressive MS or secondary-progressive MS. They were given high-dose biotin MD or inactive placebo for 48 weeks. The results suggested that More research is needed to determine who might benefit from this approach.

MedDay Pharma, which sponsored the trial, stated that another trial is underway. They issued a second Safety Communication in November to remind the public and healthcare providers about biotin interference with lab tests. Work with your healthcare provider and laboratory to help prevent adverse events. Offers many consumer-geared resources. Food assistance Feeding America — Nationwide network of food banks. Meals on Wheels America — Online search tool to locate home-delivered meal programs throughout the U.