Because of her different mindset, she does not have the same ideals as Mama and Maggie, particularly in regard to cultural preservation and the best way to go about it. Because this story is told in first-person the readers "watch" the story unfold through the eyes and opinions of Mama. As Maggie and Mama wait for Dee to arrive for a visit Mama's mind wanders with various thoughts and memories of Dee, giving the audience an impartial view of Dee as being self centered and uncaring.
It is thought by some that Mama does not judge Dee, nor Maggie, accurately due to Mama's own insecurities. As the story concludes the audience is left with the vision of Mama and Maggie remaining alone, once again, on the front lawn; happy to be rid of Dee and the exhausting perfection as they bask in the simplicity of each other and the straight forward life that has been built. Christian , the story is discussed in reference to slavery and the black power movement. The characters in the story focus a lot on African culture and heritage. Traditional African clothing is described throughout the story, and this is a symbol of the family's heritage.
The mentioning of changing names relates back to slavery as well; the characters were trying to forget about their slave names, and think of more traditional names to remember their culture and "[affirm] their African roots. On the other hand, in the essay "'Everyday Use' as a Portrait of the Artist" by Mary Helen Washington, the story is looked at from a more artistic and cultural perspective.
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The essay describes Dee as an artist who "returns home Although she changes her name from Dee to a more Native African name and wears African clothing, she lacks real knowledge of her culture. Because of this, Mama chooses Maggie over Dee to take the quilts, because Maggie shows more appreciation and knowledge of their culture and as she said in the story was involved in the making of those quilts whereas Dee had no part in.
One symbol found in this short story is the quilt. The quilt itself is a very meaningful item in the sense that it has history in it. It includes clothes that Dee's great grandma used to wear and pieces of uniforms that Dee's great grandpa wore during the Civil War. However, it also symbolizes value in Negro-American experience. The yard seems to be a place to think for Mama, where she can imagine herself being someone more conventionally attractive than she actually is, but also remember just how much she has done for her family.
In the African-American community, women have engaged in the tradition of quilting since they were brought to America as slaves.
Quilting requires sewing pieces of cloth together to create a coverlet that functions as both a piece of art and a household item. The communal nature of quilting strengthened the bonds of sisterhood and helped to move marginalised women from enslavement to empowerment. Quilting allowed these women to assert control over the colonial practice of slavery as enforced by white hegemony.
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Historically, products such as cotton and indigo dye were acquired as a result of black oppression. By sewing cotton into their quilts, African-American slaves formed a bond with nature, which replaced the hegemonic relationship enforced by slavery. Black slaves often attended communal Quilting Bees, which offered these oppressed women the opportunity to create social bonds unsupervised.
Thus, quilting became a symbol of sisterly solidarity for African-American slaves. Additionally, quilting functioned as a response to cultural and political change, allowing opportunity for political debate. Black women used quilting as a source of activism: their quilts often depicted anti-slavery slogans. Black women used quilting as a source of activism: their quilts often depicted anti-slavery slogans.
However, quilting also came to represent the hegemony of patriarchal society. One quilt even features a piece of the war uniform worn by their Great Grandpa Ezra during the Civil War. Dee views the quilts as worthy of museum display "Maggie can't appreciate these quilts! She'd probably be backward enough to put them to everyday use. In critical readings of this article, the largest trend regarding this story has been to criticize Dee and the way she goes about her personal cultural reclamation.
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Johnson [Mama] is both narrator and character, has an immediate and forceful effect upon our perception of Dee. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article possibly contains original research.
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August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved Literature Resource Center. The Southern Review. The Journal of Negro History. Durham and London: Duke University Press, : African American Review.
Journal of Intercultural Disciplines. The Radical Teacher. Studies in Short Fiction. In Love and Trouble. New York: Harvest Books, : — p. Journal of the Southern Comparative Literature Association. The sisters were also excellent spinners and weavers. Wool from their sheep was washed, carded, and spun using a spinning wheel, sometimes dying the yarn with berries or bark.
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They then wove the skeins of yarn into fabric. Flax and cotton were also grown at the Walker sisters' farm to produce their own textiles using the cotton gin that their father had built.
The linsey-woolsey blend cloth created was used to sew their own clothing. Following in their mother Margaret's footsteps, the daughters also kept a herbal garden for mountain remedies, including horseradish, boneset, and peppermint for healing teas. Natural plants in the forests were collected, too. The Walker sisters once said, "Our land produces everything we need except sugar, soda, coffee, and salt. Martha and Hettie on the porch and Louisa at the churn. The Beginning of a National Park. In , Congress approved authorization of the park, allowing North Carolina and Tennessee to start raising money to buy nearly half a million acres, most of which was privately owned.
Parcels of land collected from families and timber companies alike were bargained for, haggled over, and eventually purchased, including the Walker sisters' acre homestead. Refusing to leave their mountain home, the sisters held out until , when President Roosevelt officially dedicated Great Smoky Mountains National Park from a stone memorial at Newfound Gap. But living in the national park meant traditional practices such as hunting and fishing, cutting wood, and grazing livestock were now prohibited within the park boundaries.
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A new lifestyle developed for the sisters. Visitors flocked to the park and visited what became known as "Five Sisters Cove". The Walkers welcomed the curious newcomers and saw them as an opportunity to sell handmade items such as children's toys, crocheted doilies, fried apple pies, and even Louisa's hand-written poems.
The sisters were even featured in the Saturday Evening Post in April , showcasing their mountain lifestyle to the rest of the country.
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The Walker sisters' home sits just over a mile back in the woods from the Little Greenbrier Schoolhouse. Hettie died a year later in , and Martha died in With only two sisters left, Margaret and Louisa wrote a letter to the park superintendent asking if the "visitors welcome" sign—with information about the Walker sisters—could be taken down, explaining that they were getting too old and tired to get work done on the farm and greet visitors, too. At that time Margaret was 82 and Louisa was Margaret Walker died in at age 92, and Louisa stayed in the house until she died on July 13,